From Amnio to Zygote, peep our glossary of all the pregnancy and birth-related terms you never knew existed, 'til now.


/im·yuh·nuh·zey·shuh n/

T-DAP and a flu shot are the two shots your healthcare provider and the CDC recommends taking while pregnant so that your baby is also immunized. Prior to getting pregnant, you should ensure that you’re up to date on your other vaccines since most can’t be given while pregnant.



Impetigo is a skin infection caused by the Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria. It is contagious and can be very dangerous for newborn babies but not for other people. Anyone can get it, but it's very common in young children. It is important to keep children who have impetigo away from babies and they shouldn’t go to school, child care or recreational classes until you’ve started treatment and symptoms subside, which often happens within 10 days.

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

/in vee·troh· fur·tl·uh·zey·shuh n/

IVF or in vitro fertilization is a fertility treatment that works by using a combination of medicine and surgical procedures to help sperm fertilize an egg and implant in a woman’s uterus. First, you take medication that makes several of your eggs mature and ready for fertilization. Then, the doctor takes the eggs out of your body and mixes them with sperm to then fertilize the eggs. They'll then put one or more fertilized egg (i.e. embryos) directly into your uterus where ideally the embryos implant themselves in the lining. IVF has many steps and it can take several months to complete, but can be incredibly successful. Just know that many couples need more than one round to see success.


/in·di·jes·chuh n/

Indigestion, heartburn and acid reflux are common pregnancy symptoms caused by hormonal changes and when your expanding uterus starts putting pressure on the intestines, especially in the second and third trimesters. Here’s what you can do to prevent it. Eat smaller meals more often throughout the day, rather than a few large meals. Also avoid, spicy, greasy food. If your heartburn is severe, call your doc and she might prescribe some mama and baby-safe medication. If not, keep that Zantac, Pepcid AC and Tums handy.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

/in·tra·cyt·oh·plas·mik· spurm· in·jek·shuh n/

ICSI is a fertility treatment for sperm-related issues, ie when the sperm cannot penetrate the outer layer of the egg or do not move in a normal fashion, which can cause trouble attaching to the egg. ICSI can be done in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the the egg. The success rate for ICSI is 50%-80%.

Intrauterine Growth Restriction

/ in· truh· yoo· tr· uhn· growth· ruh· strik· shn/

Also known as IUGR, this serious condition occurs when a fetus isn't growing at a normal rate and is smaller than it should be. Delayed growth puts babe at a risk of certain health problems during pregnancy, delivery and following birth. IUGR has many possible causes. A common cause could be a problem with the placenta, which joins the mother + fetus and carries oxygen and nutrients to babe. IUGR can also occur as the result of certain health problems in mom, such as diabetes, infection, kidney or lung disease, malnutrition, drug abuse, or other fetal causes such as chromosomal abnormalities or even just a pregnancy with multiples.

Some symptoms of IUGR can include low low birth weight, stresses during vaginal delivery, decreased oxygen levels, low blood sugar, low resistance to infection and trouble maintaining body temperature and blood cell count. In the most severe cases, IUGR can lead to stillbirth. It can also cause long-term growth problems.

Your medical provider can estimate whether or not your fetus is of normal growth using simple and common measuring tools. A lower than expected measurement may indicate the baby is not growing as it should and your provider can advise as to further options to help boost your babe's size and weight.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

/in·truh·yoo·ter·in· in·sem·uh·neyt/

A procedure to inject sperm directly into a woman’s uterus using a small catheter passed through the cervical canal. When a man’s sperm count isn’t high enough, or when ovulation isn’t happening normally, a doctor can determine if IUI is a logical procedure for you. It can be performed during a natural ovulation cycle, or with ovulation induction medications. Once the time of ovulation is predicted, a semen sample will be produced by your partner (this is known as sperm washing) and inserted into the women’s uterine cavity to fertilize an egg.



The vaginal discharge you get after a vaginal delivery. It has a fleshy, earthy odor and goes from a dark red color to brown to yellow after several days and weeks. You may notice blood clots from heavy to light after delivery too; it’s all perfectly normal. The bleeding generally stops within 4 to 6 weeks after delivery and you should wear pads, not tampons until you’ve healed. Each day it should decrease. Talk to your healthcare provider if any severe bleeding occurs.